Francine du Plessix Gray (7 August 2000). One questioned, "Can the King do it? Louis was officially arrested on 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. In September 1792, the new National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the insurrection of 10 August 1792 one month before the constitutional monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic proclaimed on 21 September 1792. Log in. In Marie Antoinette (1938), he was played by Robert Morley. In 1996 Patrice Leconte made Ridicule which depicted a court already at odds with its nobles and in terminal decline. In 1770, he married Marie Antoinette, who was an Austrian arch-duchess. Louis XVI (1754 – 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792, although his formal title after 1791 was King of the French. Necker concealed the crisis from the public by explaining only that ordinary revenues exceeded ordinary expenses, and not mentioning the loans. His desire to be loved by his people is evident in the prefaces of many of his edicts that would often explain the nature and good intention of his actions as benefiting the people. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. However, Louis XVI and his reign were of interest as well. "[19] In spite of his indecisiveness, Louis XVI was determined to be a good king, stating that he "must always consult public opinion; it is never wrong. Marie Antoinette was executed nine months later. He was particularly irked by being kept essentially as a prisoner in the Tuileries, and by the refusal of the new regime to allow him to have confessors and priests of his choice rather than 'constitutional priests' pledged to the state and not the Roman Catholic Church. In 1780, France sent Rochambeau and de Grasse to help the Americans, along with large land and naval forces. The empty pedestal in front of him had supported a statue of his grandfather, Louis XV, now torn down during the revolution. As the revolution became more radical and the masses became more uncontrollable, several leading figures in the initial formation of the revolution began to doubt its benefits. [25] In 1782, he sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan. Initially, he had looked on the revolution with equanimity. For example, the First and Second Estates proceeded into the assembly wearing their finest garments, while the Third Estate was required to wear plain, oppressively somber black, an act of alienation that Louis would likely have not condoned. Louis also felt woefully unqualified for the job. Louis XIV became the king of France on May 14, 1643. Since France was at war with Austria and Prussia, Louis XVII became a valuable pawn in negotiations between the revolutionary government and its enemies. Spain and the Netherlands soon joined the French in an anti-British coalition. Until he reached maturity (then defined as his 13th birthday) on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. His words came too late. mini567 mini567 18.08.2020 History Secondary School +5 pts. Louis XVI is the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. The deeper realization that the king had in fact repudiated the revolution, was an even greater shock for people who until then had seen him as a good king who governed as a manifestation of God's will. Throughout the 1780’s France, and the peasants in particular, struggled due to economic hardships and poor harvests. 4) Who was Louis XVI’s mother-in-law? His fear of being manipulated by her for Imperial purposes caused him to behave coldly towards her in public. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. Louis XVI was the King of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1791, when he became the King of the French until he was deposed and executed in 1792. Synopsis. For example, Louis XVI was known to be shy and indecisive. Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the King of France from 1774 until 1792, when the monarchy was abolished during the French Revolution. The next day, a roll-call vote was carried out to decide upon the fate of the former king, and the result was uncomfortably close for such a dramatic decision. The next day, a motion to grant Louis XVI reprieve from the death sentence was voted down: 310 of the deputies requested mercy, but 380 voted for the immediate execution of the death penalty. He ascended to the throne five years later in 1770 at age 20. "Dictionary of World Biography". HEY! He ruled for 72 years and 110 days that was the longest reign in European history. Louis XIV was one of the greatest kings of France, dubbed as Louis the Great or the Sun King. A Chronicle of the French Revolution,, "The Truth About Louis XVI's Marital Difficulties", 2) When was Louis XVI born? Log in. [26] In October 1781, the French naval blockade was instrumental in forcing a British army under Lord Cornwallis to surrender at the Siege of Yorktown. However, Louis XVI and his reign were of interest as well. [30][31], Louis XVI giving La Pérouse his instructions. At the age of five, he succeeded his great grandfather Louis XIV as king of France. The Edict of Versailles did not legally proclaim freedom of religion in France – this took two more years, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789 – however, it was an important step in eliminating religious tensions and it officially ended religious persecution within his realm. By May 10, 2011. Our statue of Louis XVI here in Louisville holds a unique status as one of a man for whom a US city was named, coming from a French city where it … [45] Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. In 1785, he appointed La Pérouse to lead a sailing expedition around the world. 2. This decision would be final. Ask your question. As the heir, Louis was taught to avoid letting others know of his true feelings, which led to a disagreement among historians about his true intelligence. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. Cat Killer. !WHEN DID LOUIS XVI BECOME THE KING OF FRANCE? Antonia Fraser also refers to a miscarriage the queen seems to have suffered in July 1779, and another in early November 1783. "[20] He therefore appointed an experienced advisor, Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas who, until his death in 1781, would take charge of many important ministerial functions. The return of the royal family to Paris on 25 June 1791, coloured copperplate after a drawing of Jean-Louis Prieur. Louis-Auguste had a difficult childhood because his parents neglected him in favour of his, said to be, bright and handsome older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, who died at the age of nine in 1761. Members of the Commune and the most radical deputies, who would soon form the group known as the Mountain, argued for Louis's immediate execution. Louis XVI was 20 years old when he became the king of France. France's initial military assistance to the American rebels was a disappointment with defeats at Rhode Island and Savannah. [23], As power drifted from him, there were increasingly loud calls for him to convoke the Estates-General, which had not met since 1614, at the beginning of the reign of Louis XIII. Within three short months, the majority of the king's executive authority had been transferred to the elected representatives of the people's nation. ?_____ Get the answers you need, now! At birth, Louis was third in line to the French throne. France gained little from the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the war, except the colonies of Tobago and Senegal. So, in 1776, Turgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned, to be replaced by Jacques Necker. The duke then issued on 25 July a proclamation called the Brunswick Manifesto, written by Louis's émigré cousin, the Prince de Condé, declaring the intent of the Austrians and Prussians to restore the king to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law. Log in. [12] Historians adhering to this view suggest that he was circumcised[13] (a common treatment for phimosis) to relieve the condition seven years after their marriage. "The Execution of Louis XVI and the End of the French Monarchy. ", Doyle, William. Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 to King Louis XII and Anne of Austria. His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion. The future Louis XVI was born at Versailles in August 1754. Louis-Auguste became Louis XVI, king of France, in 1774, upon his grandfather’s passing. Learn more at Louis XVI of France was among the very few monarchs of his who believed in the ideas of Enlightenment and implemented them during his rule. The argument for phimosis and a resulting operation is mostly seen to originate from Stefan Zweig, who is now known to have given undue prominence to evidence suggesting that Louis had phimosis, and to have suppressed other evidence that contradicted that interpretation. A strong and healthy boy, but very shy, Louis-Auguste excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy, and became fluent in Italian and English. In 1789, to avert the deepening crisis, Louis agreed to summon the 'estates-general' (a form of parliament, but without real power) in order to try and raise taxes. Thus, he became king when he was four years old. Great Britain declared war the same year, and the French Revolution only became … On 27 August, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigrés French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe in the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. On 11 December, among crowded and silent streets, the deposed king was brought from the Temple to stand before the Convention and hear his indictment, an accusation of high treason and crimes against the State. 2. 1. History casts him as a passive king—a plump and nerdy bystander to inequality who didn’t wake up to his subjects’ struggles until it was too late. Later that year, ceding to popular pressure, In 1770, at the age of fifteen, Louis XVI married Marie Antoinette, the fourteen year old daughter of the Emperor and Empress of Austria. The war cost 1,066 million livres, financed by new loans at high interest (with no new taxes). He was the second son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his German-born wife Maria Josepha. In 1780, the Virginia General Assembly bestowed this name in honor of the French king, whose soldiers were aiding the American side in the. [46] This account was proven true in 2012 after a DNA comparison linked blood thought to be from Louis XVI's beheading to DNA taken from tissue samples originating from what was long thought to be the mummified head of Henry IV of France. Louis XVI father was the next in line to the French throne but he died in 1765. There are also accounts of a blood-curdling scream issuing from Louis after the blade fell but this is unlikely, since the blade severed Louis's spine. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. 3) Where was Louis XVI born? Tinted etching of Louis XVI, 1792. Cat Killer. 1. At dawn, they infiltrated the palace and attempted to kill the queen, who was associated with a frivolous lifestyle that symbolized much that was despised about the Ancien Régime. Mel Brooks played a comic version of Louis XVI in The History of the World Part 1, portraying him as a libertine who has such a distaste for the peasantry he uses them as targets in skeet shooting. [28], Louis XVI hoped to use the American Revolutionary War as an opportunity to expel the British from India. [27] When news of this reached London, the government of Lord North fell in March 1782 and Great Britain immediately sued for peace terms; however, France delayed the end of the war until September 1783 in the hope of overrunning more British colonies in India and the West Indies. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. But while this event did … When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774, he was 19 years old. The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estatethe commonsused the opportu… Louis was found guilty of treason and executed at the guillotine on 21 January 1793. The former king was then quickly beheaded. [3] His instructors may have also had a good hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became. When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774, he was 19 years old. Citizen Louis Capet. From the start, Louis was unsuited to deal with the … Everyone realized that war was imminent. On 21 June 1791, Louis XVI attempted to secretly flee with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France, where he would join the émigrés and be protected by Austria. 31 "The Revolution" or "La Paix", Mov. Louis XIV became king in 1643 and remained the absolute monarch of France until his death in 1715. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He was guillotined in 1793. Louis-Auguste became Louis XVI, king of France, in 1774, upon his grandfather’s passing. "Le Couronnement de Louis XVI" by Benjamin Duvivier honoring the 11 June 1775 coronation of Louis XVI, Among the major events of Louis XVI's reign was his signing of the Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance, on 7 November 1787, which was registered in the parlement on 29 January 1788. Upon coming to the throne in 1774, Louis XVI inherited a kingdom beset with serious problems. d) Versailles. The caption refers to the date of the Tennis Court Oath and concludes "The same Louis XVI who bravely waits until his fellow citizens return to their hearths to plan a secret war and exact his revenge.". His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, and died on 13 March 1767, also from tuberculosis. Ask your question. More recently, he was depicted in the 2006 film Marie Antoinette by Jason Schwartzman. Louis XVI Quiz Questions with Answers. The Storming of the Tuileries Palace, on 10 August 1792. Louis XVI’s reign will forever be associated with the outbreak of the French Revolution and the end of Versailles’ royal era. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1791 and as King of the French from 1791 to 1792.Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. Louis-Philippe d'Orléans was born on October 6, 1773, in Paris, France. Rumours that the king intended to suppress the assembly provoked the popular storming of the Bastille prison, a symbol of repressive royal power, on 14 July 1789. This was often done through his secretly nominated regent, the Cardinal Loménie de Brienne. Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, "History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814",, Citizens. Ask your question. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. 288 of the deputies voted against death and for some other alternative, mainly some means of imprisonment or exile. "From Royal Dignity to Republican Austerity: the Ritual for the Reception of Louis XVI in the French National Assembly (1789–1792). [2] The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France" (governor of the Children of France), from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. King Louis XVI was created on August 23, 1754 in Versailles, France. Whom did France help under Louis XVI to gain their independence? Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the King of France from 1774 until 1792, when the monarchy was abolished during the French Revolution.His overthrow and execution ended a monarchy that was over 1,000 years old, although he was not the last French king.. Louis came from the House of Bourbon.He became the king at the age of 20, after the death of his grandfather Louis XV. Louis XVI, The Silent King. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. He had been king for 72 years, the longest reign in the history of France. France also intervened in Cochinchina following Mgr Pigneau de Béhaine's intervention to obtain military aid. Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638, in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France. Antonia Fraser's biography of the queen discusses Joseph II's letter on the matter to one of his brothers after he visited Versailles in 1777. The couple's consummation problems are now attributed to other factors. When the nobles were informed of the extent of the debt, they were shocked into rejecting the plan. Louis was stripped of all of his titles and honours, and from this date was known as simply Citoyen Louis Capet. He was nicknamed ‘the Well-Beloved’, but his failures contributed to the crisis that brought on the French Revolut ion. This would not have been possible if he had undergone a circumcision; at the very least, he would have been unable to ride to the hunt for a few weeks thereafter. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. ♣️ ÁHOLA BRAÎNLIAC♣️ Here is your answer Louis XVI became the king of France on 10 May 1774.☺️Hope it helps you☺️♥️ Thank you♥️ 1. As of 1661, he started reforming France. This article does not contain any citations or references. The execution of Louis XVI by guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris. The Girondins were partial to keeping the deposed king under arrest, both as a hostage and a guarantee for the future. His great-grandson became king after his death. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. When questioned about his decision, he said: "It may be considered politically unwise, but it seems to me to be the general wish and I want to be loved. Louis XVI also encouraged major voyages of exploration. Born on February 15, 1710, Louis XV was king of France for 59 years, from February 1715 until his death in May 1774. Louis-Philippe d'Orléans was born on October 6, 1773, in Paris, France. He thought only a small number of radicals in Paris were promoting a revolution that the people as a whole rejected. French involvement in the Seven Years' War had left Louis XVI a disastrous inheritance. [36] In a wider perspective, the failure was attributable to the king's indecision—he repeatedly postponed the schedule, allowing for smaller problems to become severe. Born on September 5, 1638, to King Louis XIII of France (1601-1643) and his Habsburg queen, Anne of Austria (1601-1666), the future Louis XIV was his parents’ first child after 23 years of marriage; in recognition of this apparent miracle, he was christened Louis-Dieudonné, meaning “gift of God.” A younger brother, Philippe (1640-1701), followed two years later. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined and the and the establishment of a republic became an ever increasing possibility. Louis XVI imprisoned at the Tour du Temple, by Jean-François Garneray (1755–1837). Porticodoro / SmartCGArt Media Productions – Classical Orchestra. Louis was born at Versailles on 15 February 1710. Join now. When the king died on May 14, 1643, 4-year-old Louis inherited the crown of … Louis had appointed the baron de Breteuil to act as plenipotentiary, dealing with other foreign heads of state in an attempt to bring about a counter-revolution. The first part of Louis' reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideals. In the spring of 1776, Vergennes, the Foreign Secretary, saw an opportunity to humiliate France's long-standing enemy, Great Britain, as well as recover territory lost during the Seven Years' War, by supporting the American Revolution. However, the revolution had thoroughly disorganised the army, and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. He aimed to earn the love of his people by reinstating the parlements. a. At that time he was still immature, lacking in self-confidence, austere in manner, and, because of a physical defect (later remedied by an operation), unable to consummate his marriage. Louis XVI (born Louis-Auguste; August 23, 1754–January 21, 1793) was the French king whose reign collapsed because of the French Revolution.His failure to grasp the situation and to compromise, coupled with his requests for foreign intervention, were factors that led to his execution by guillotine and the creation of the new republic. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, and Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. 72 of the deputies voted for the death penalty, but subject to a number of delaying conditions and reservations. In June 1789, the Third Estate unilaterally declared itself the National Assembly. b) Anne Robert Jaques Turgot Revolutionary constitutional reign, 1789–1792, This article does not contain any citations or references. Louis was born at Versailles on 23 August 1754. 1774 Louis XVI became King of France, May 10. [8], Nevertheless, the royal couple failed to produce any children for several years after their wedding, placing a strain upon their marriage,[9] whilst the situation was worsened by the publication of obscene pamphlets (libelles) which mocked the infertility of the pair. His daughter, Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, the future Duchess of Angoulême, survived the French Revolution, and she lobbied in Rome energetically for the canonization of her father as a saint of the Catholic Church. One suggestion is that Louis-Auguste suffered from a physiological dysfunction,[11] most often thought to be phimosis, a suggestion first made in late 1772 by the royal doctors. Throughout his 38 years of life, the so-called last King of France (at least before the 18th century French Revolution) went by many names. Louis was born at Versailles on 23 August 1754. Louis XVI of France was born Louis-Auguste in the Palace of Versailles on August 23, 1754. Execution of Louis XVI in the Place de la Révolution. Read more. A France-Cochinchina alliance was signed through the Treaty of Versailles of 1787, between Louis XVI and Prince Nguyễn Ánh. France still maintained a strong influence in the West Indies, and in India maintained five trading posts, leaving opportunities for disputes and power-play with Great Britain.[25]. It did not go well. King Louis XVI of France. King Louis XVI of France. As king, Louis focused primarily on religious uniformity and foreign policy. They felt betrayed. However, Louis XVI struggled to lead France and lacked the qualities of previous monarchs. While the National Assembly worked painstakingly towards a constitution, Louis and Marie-Antoinette were involved in plans of their own. Synopsis. [18] The fact was that Louis was frequently declared to be perfectly fit for sexual intercourse, confirmed by Joseph II, and during the time he was purported to have had the operation, he went out hunting almost every day, according to his journal. Louis XVI, 1781 © Louis was king of France when the monarchy was overthrown during the French Revolution. Our statue of Louis XVI here in Louisville holds a unique status as one of a man for whom a US city was named, coming from a French city where it … As the heir, Louis was taught to avoid letting others know of his true feelings, which led to a disagreement among historians about his true intelligence. This had led to a strategy amongst the French leadership of seeking to rebuild the French military in order to fight a war of revenge against Britain, in which it was hoped the lost colonies could be recovered. On 5 October 1789, an angry mob of Parisian working women was incited by revolutionaries and marched on the Palace of Versailles, where the royal family lived. On 26 December, his counsel, Raymond de Sèze, delivered Louis' response to the charges, with the assistance of François Tronchet and Malesherbes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. pp. [21], Radical financial reforms by Turgot and Malesherbes angered the nobles and were blocked by the parlements who insisted that the King did not have the legal right to levy new taxes. As a result, the revolution was opposed by many of the rural people of France and by practically all the governments of France's neighbors. The King, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings ascended the throne of France. Can't the King do it?"[10]. 1) When did Louis XVI become the King of France? French support for the colonists in the American War of Independence had brought the country to the verge of bankruptcy. He seemed to regard the deputies of the Estates-General with at least respect: in a wave of self-important patriotism, members of the Estates refused to remove their hats in the King's presence, so Louis removed his to them.[24]. 1. In the end, the Legislative Assembly, supported by Louis, declared war on the Holy Roman Empire first, voting for war on 20 April 1792, after a long list of grievances was presented to it by the foreign minister, Charles François Dumouriez. In effect, he headed a secret council of advisers to the King that tried to preserve the Monarchy; these schemes proved unsuccessful, and were exposed later as the armoire de fer scandal.

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